Chronology and History of Turkey Information

History of Istanbul

• 1900-1300 BC: The Hittite Empire – Capital City: Hattusas.
• 1259 a.C .: The Treaty of Kadesh signed between the Hittites and the Egyptians is the first peace treaty recorded in the world.
• 1250 a.C .: The Trojan War.
• 700 a.C .: Homer is born in Izmir.
• 334 a.C .: Alexander the Great conquered Anatolia, freeing it from the Persians.
• 130 a.C .: Anatolia becomes the Roman province of Asia with its capital in Ephesus.
• 40 a.C .: Antonio and Cleopatra get married in Antakya.
• 47-57 AD: San Pablo makes his famous trips through the region.
• 313 AD: The Emperor Constantine accepts Christianity as the official religion
• 330 AD: The Emperor renamed the capital Bizanzio by Constantinople, which became the capital of the Byzantine Empire, the eastern part of the Roman Empire.
• 527-65: The Kingdom of Justinian.
• 636-718: Muslim Arabs defeat the Byzantines and enter Constantinople.
• 1054: Rupture between the Greek and Roman churches.
• 1096-1204: The Crusades.
• 1288: The birth of the Ottoman Empire, founded by the Muslim Osmanli.
• 1453: Sultan Mehmet II conquered Constantinople and renamed it “Istanbul”, the new capital of the Ottoman Empire. The Aya Sofya Church is converted into a mosque.
• 1520-66: The Kingdom of Süleyman the Great, the golden age of the Ottoman Empire.
• 1854: The Crimean War; Turkey is allied with the British and the French against the Russians.
• 1914-1918: In the First World War, Turkey is allied with Germany and is defeated. The winning countries propose the end of the Ottoman Empire.
• 1919: The War of Independence against the British and the Greeks under the leadership of Atatürk.
• 1923: The Republic of Turkey is proclaimed under the presidency of Atatürk. Exchange of minority peoples between Greece and Turkey. Introduction of reforms to modernize and secularize the state. Implementation of the Latin alphabet, reintroduction of the Turkish language, prohibition of the traditional veil for women.
• 1938: Death of Atatürk.

Recent period:
• 1939-45: Turkey remains neutral during World War II.
• 1946: Turkey becomes a member of the United Nations.
• 1950: The first national democratic elections are held.
• 1952: Turkey enters NATO.
• 1960: Coup d’etat.
• 1964: Turkey becomes an associate member of the European Economic Community
• 1974: Military intervention of the Turkish army in Cyprus. Division of that country.
• 1980: Another coup d’état imposes three years of military government.
• 1983: Transition to the civil government system with the President and Prime Minister.
• 1996: Turkey enters the European Customs Union.


In February the leader of the PKK terrorist group, Abdullah Öcalan, is captured by Turkish agents in Kenya. General elections in April. Major earthquake on August 17. The last Millennium Summit “The OSCE Summit” is held in October. In the month of December the candidacy of Turkey to be a member of the European Union is accepted in Helsinki.

Inauguration of the new airport in Istanbul. May 16: new President of the Republic, Ahmet Necdet Sezer. For the first time in the history of Turkish football, Galatasaray wins the UEFA Cup and the Super Cup.

Economic crisis. The Vice President of the World Bank, the Turkish Kemal Dervis, returns to Turkey, where he is appointed Minister of Economy. Turkey ranks second in the European basketball league.

The Turkish Parliament approves the criteria for adaptation to the European Union. Turkey is named to lead the NATO forces in Afghanistan. In the Japan-Korea Soccer World Cup, Turkey is ranked third after Brazil and Germany. New general elections on November 3, won by the Justice and Development Party (AKP).

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan becomes Prime Minister of Turkey. More than 160 people die trapped in an earthquake in the Bingol area.

Turkey signs a protocol abolishing the death penalty. The parliament approves reforms to the penal code that imply more severe measures to prevent torture and violence against women. Leaders of the European Union approve open discussions on the inclusion of Turkey in that economic community.

The new Turkish Lira begins to circulate, which eliminates the six zeros of the old numeration. The negotiations for the approval of Turkey as a member of the European Union are resumed. Turkey assumes for the second time the leadership of NATO forces in Afghanistan.

Turkish parliament approves new anti-terrorism law. A Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan gas pipeline is inaugurated. The PKK declares a unilateral ceasefire. Negotiations are halted for Turkey’s entry into the European Union for having its ports and airports closed to Cypriot traffic.

The journalist and leader of the Armenian community Hrant Dink is assassinated. The AKP wins the elections and remains in power. Abdullah Gül is elected president.

Parliament approves constitutional reforms to allow women to wear the Islamic veil in universities. The trial begins against 86 alleged members of an ultra-nationalist group called “Ergenekon”, accused of planning a series of attacks and a military coup against the government. The Turkish national football team is third in the European Championship, along with the Russian national team.

The Turkish and Armenian governments agree to improve bilateral relations. The government presents new measures to parliament in favor of the Kurdish language and its speakers. The intergovernmental agreement between Turkey, Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary and Austria is signed for the implementation of the Nebuchadnezzar gas pipeline.

Thirty-three officers are accused of conspiracy to overthrow the government in the Ergenekon trials. The murder of nine Turkish citizens by Israeli soldiers on the Mavi Marmara ship, which sought to reach Gaza with humanitarian aid, profoundly tensed relations between Turkey and Israel. The Wikileaks site publishes a series of cables that reveal that France and Austria have led the negative position in the talks for the entry of Turkey into the European Union.

The AKP wins the elections again, with a resounding victory. Prime Minister Tayyip Erdoğan begins his third term of office. The country welcomes thousands of Syrian refugees, while Ankara demands reforms in the neighboring country.

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