Chronology and History of Turkey

• 1900-1300 BC: Hittite Empire – Capital City: Hattusas.

• 1259 BC: The Kadesh Treaty signed between the Hittites and the Egyptians is the first recorded peace treaty in the world

• 1250 BCE: The Trojan War
• 700 BCE: Homer was born in Izmir

• 334 BC: Alexander the Great conquered Anatolia, freeing it from the Persians

• 130 BC: Anatolia becomes the Roman province of Asia with its capital at Ephesus
• 40 BC: Anthony and Cleopatra were married in Antakya
• AD 47-57: St. Paul made his famous trips to the area.
• 313 AD: Emperor Constantine accepted Christianity as official religion
• 330 AD: Emperor renamed the capital Bizanzio by Constantinople became the capital of the Byzantine Empire, Eastern Roman Empire

• 527-65: The Kingdom of Justinian
• 636-718: Muslim Arabs defeated the Byzantines and enter Constantinople
• 1054: Rupture between the Greek and Roman churches

• 1096-1204: The Crusades
• 1288: The birth of the Ottoman Empire, founded by the Muslim Osmanli

• 1453: The Sultan Mehmet II the Concorer renamed Constantinople to Istanbul, the new capital of the Ottoman Empire. The Ayasofya Cathedral is converted into a mosque.
• 1520-66: The reign of Suleyman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire’s golden age.
• 1854: The Crimean War, Turkey allied with the British and French against the Russians.
• 1914-1918: In the First World War, Turkey allied with Germany and is defeated.
• 1919: The War of Independence against the British and the Greeks under the leadership of Atatürk
• 1923: The Parlament proclaims the Republic of Turkey under the presidency of Atatürk. Minority villages exchange population between Greece and Turkey.
Reforms to modernize and secularize the state.
Implementation of the Latin alphabet, reintroduction of the Turkish language, prohibition of the traditional veil for women.
• 1938: Atatürk dies.

Recent period:

• 1939-45: Turkey remains neutral during the Second World War
• 1946: Turkey becomes a member of the United Nations
• 1950: Turkey held the first national democratic elections
• 1952: Turkey enters NATO
• 1960: Military coup
• 1964: Turkey becomes associate member of the European Economic Community
• 1974: Turkish army’s military intervention in Cyprus. Division of that country
• 1980: Another coup requires three years of military rule
• 1983: Transition to the system of civil government with President and Prime Minister
• 1996: Turkey enters the European Customs Union

In February, the leader of the PKK terrorist group is captured by Turkish agents in Kenya.
General elections in April
Major earthquake on 17 August
In the month of October we celebrate the Millennium Summit last.
The Summit of the OSCE
Turkey’s candidacy for membership in the European Union is accepted in December in Helsinki.

For the first time in the history of Turkish football, Galatasaray won the UEFA Cup and the Super Cup.
Economic crisis World Bank Vice President, Turkish Kemal Dervis, returned to Turkey where he was appointed as the Minister of Economy.
Turkey is ranked second on the European basketball league.
Turkish Parliament approves the criteria for adaptation to the European Union. Turkey is appointed to lead NATO forces in Afghanistan. World Cup in Japan, Korea,
Turkey is ranked third after Brazil and Germany.
New general elections on November 3.

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